Most children with scoliosis have mild curves and probably won't need treatment with a brace or surgery. Children who have mild scoliosis may need checkups every four to six months to see if there have been changes in the curvature of their spines.
While there are guidelines for mild, moderate and severe curves, the decision to begin treatment is always made on an individual basis. Factors to be considered include:
- Sex. Girls have a much higher risk of progression than do boys.
- Severity of curve. Larger curves are more likely to worsen with time.
- Curve pattern. Double curves, also known as S-shaped curves, tend to worsen more often than do C-shaped curves.
- Location of curve. Curves located in the center (thoracic) section of the spine worsen more often than do curves in the upper or lower sections of the spine.
- Maturity. If a child's bones have stopped growing, the risk of curve progression is low. That also means that braces have the most effect in children whose bones are still growing.
If your child's bones are still growing and he or she has moderate scoliosis, your doctor may recommend a brace. Wearing a brace won't cure scoliosis, or reverse the curve, but it usually prevents further progression of the curve.
Most braces are worn day and night. A brace's effectiveness increases with the number of hours a day it's worn. Children who wear braces can usually participate in most activities and have few restrictions. If necessary, kids can take off the brace to participate in sports or other physical activities.
Braces are discontinued after the bones stop growing. This typically occurs:
- About two years after girls begin to menstruate
- When boys need to shave daily
- When there are no further changes in height
Braces are of two main types:
- Underarm or low-profile brace. This type of brace is made of modern plastic materials and is contoured to conform to the body. Also called a thoracolumbosacral orthosis, this close-fitting brace is almost invisible under the clothes, as it fits under the arms and around the rib cage, lower back and hips. Underarm braces are not helpful for curves in the upper spine or neck.
- Milwaukee brace. This full-torso brace has a neck ring with rests for the chin and for the back of the head. The brace has a flat bar in the front and two flat bars in the back. Because they are more cumbersome, Milwaukee braces usually are used only in situations where an underarm brace won't help.
Severe scoliosis typically progresses with time, so your doctor might suggest scoliosis surgery to reduce the severity of the spinal curve and to prevent it from getting worse. The most common type of scoliosis surgery is called spinal fusion.
In spinal fusion, surgeons connect two or more of the bones in the spine (vertebrae) together, so they can't move independently. Pieces of bone or a bone-like material are placed between the vertebrae. Metal rods, hooks, screws or wires typically hold that part of the spine straight and still while the old and new bone material fuses together.
Surgery is usually postponed until after a child's bones have stopped growing. If the scoliosis is progressing rapidly at a young age, surgeons can install a rod that can adjust in length as the child grows. This growing rod is attached to the top and bottom sections of the spinal curvature, and is usually lengthened every six months.
Complications of spinal surgery may include bleeding, infection, pain or nerve damage. Rarely, the bone fails to heal and another surgery may be needed.